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     The demiurge of the cosmologic traditions of the Algonquian tribes, known among the various peoples by several unrelated names, based on some marked characteristic or dominant function of this personage. Among these names are Jamurn, Kloskap (Gloskap), Manabozho, Messou, Michabo, M inahuzho, 1isahos, Napiw, Nontchozho, Wieska, Winakedjak, and their dialectic. variants. 'I'll(! etymologies proposed for these several names are must probably incorrect, wholly or in material parts. Namtbozho is apparently the impersonation of life, the active quickening power of life of life manifested and embodied in the myriad forms of sentient and physical nature. lie is therefore reputed to possess not only the power to live, but also the correlative power of renewing his own life and of quickening and therefore of creating life in others. lie impersonates life in an unlimited series of diverse personalities which represent various phases and conditions of life, and the histories of the life and acts of these separate individualities fort an entire cycle of traditions and myths which, when compared one with another, are sometimes apparently contradictory and incongruous, relating, as these stories do, to the unrelated objects and subjects in nature.

     The conception named Nanabozho exercises the diverse functions of many persons, and he likewise suffers their pains and needs. He is this life struggling with the ninny forms of want, misfortune, and death flint come to the bodies and beings of nature.

     The true character of the concept embodied in the personality called Nanabozho has been misconceived. Horatio Hale, for example, calls the Chippewa Nanabozho a fantastic deity, declaring him to have no relation to the Iroquois Te'lioro"`hiawa'k'hol", whereas lie is in everything but minor details identical with the Iroquoian conception embodied in the latter personality. Few, if any, of the characteristic acts and functions of the one may not safely and correctly be predicated of the other, and it is a remarkable parallel if the one is not a concept borrowed by the people of one linguistic family from the thought of the other. If independent creations, they agree in so many points that it is more than probable that the one suggested the other.

     Even the play of popular interpretation and etymologic analysis have made like errors in the events connected with the life history of each. In the Iroquois legend the brother of Te`horo"hiawa'k'ho" is reputed to have been embodied in cliert or flint, a statement based on a misconception arising from the common origin of some terms denotive of ice on the one hand and of chert on the other. A like error gave rise to the Chippewa name for chert or flint (, dl ie/v(rnn), which signifies `ice-stone,' and the connection between audsnnt, `wolf,' and tiu%'ha&;, `a flint or chert,' also a name of Chakekenapok, the brother of Nanabozho. The confusion is that the ruler of winter, the ruler clothed in frost, ice, and snow, is identified with chert or flint, in Iroquois too, bocause.of the identity of origin between the terms fur crystal or sparkling ice and the smooth glistening surface of chert or flint.

     In Potawatouni and cognate tradition Nanabozho is the eldest of male quadruplets, the beloved Chipiapoos being tine second, Wabosbo the third, and Chakekenapok the fourth. They were begotten by a great primal being, who had come to earth, and were born of a reputed daughter of the children of uncut. Nanabozho was the professed and active friend of the human race. The mild and gentle but unfortunate Chipiapoos became the warder of the (lead, the ruler of the country of the manes, after this transformation. Wahosso ('Maker of White'), seeing tile sunlight, went to the northland, where, assuming the form of a white hare, he is regarded as possessing most potent manito or orenda (q. v.). Lastly, Chakekenapok, named from chert, flint, or firestone (?fire), was the impersonation originally of winter, and in coining into the world ruthlessly caused the death of his mother.

     Having attained the age of manhood, Nanabozho, still feeling deep resentment for the death of his mother, resolved to avenge it by the destruction of his brother Chakekenapok. The two brothers soon grappled with each other. Chakekenapok finally turned and fled, but Nanabozho pursued him over the world, finally overtaking and striking him with a deerhorn or a chert, fracturing or chipping pieces from various parts of his body, and destroying him by tearing out his entrails. The fragments from Chakekenapok's body became huge rocks, and the masses of flint or cliert found in various parts of the world show where the conflicts between the two brothers took place, while his entrails became vines. Before the Indians knew the art of lire-making Nanabozho taught them the art of making hatchets, lances, and arrowpoints.

     Nanabozho and Chipiapoos dwelt together in a land far removed from the haunts of mankind. They were noted for excellence of body and beneficence of mind, and for the supreme character of the magic power they possessed. These qualities and attributes excited the bitter antagonism of the evil manitos of the air, earth, and waters, who plotted to destroy these two brothers. Nanabozho, who was immune to the effects of adverse orenda and from whose knowledge nothing was barred, knew their snares and devices and hence eluded and avoided them.

      He, however, warned Chipiapoos, his less-gifted brother, not to leave their lodge or to separate from him even for a moment. But, disregarding this aduconition, one day Chipiapoos ventured out of the lodge and went on the ice of a great lake, probably L.MOil gan. Thisteiuerity was the opportunity sought by the manitos, who broke the ice, causing Chipiapoos to sink to the bottom of the lake, where his body was hidden by the manitos. Upon returning to the lodge, Nanabozho, missing Chipiaplncs and surmising his fate; became inconsolable. Everywhere over the face of the earth ae sought for hint in vain. Then he became enraged and waged relentless war against all manitos, wreaking vengeance by precipitating a multitude of them into the abyss of the world. I le next declared a truce in order to mourn for his brother, disfiguring his person and covering his head to indicate grief, bitterly weeping, and uttering from time to time the name of the lost and unhappy Chipiapoos. It is said Nanabozho secluded himself for six years in his lodge of mourning. During this truce the evil manitos, knowing the unlimited powers of Nanabozho and recollecting the destruction of the vast numbers of manitos by their metamorphosis to gratify his anger, consulted together to devise means for pacifying Nanabozho's wrath; but through fear of their great adversary their plans came to naught.

     At last four of the manitos, hoary with age and ripe in experience and wisdom, and who had not been parties to the death of Chipiapoos, undertook a mission of pacification. Having built a lodge of condolence near that of Nanabozho, they prepared a feast of welcome, filling with tobacco a pipe the stem of which was a calumet, and then silently and ceremoniously moved toward their antagonist. The four ambassadors severally carried a bag made from the entire skin of an otter, a lynx, a beaver, or of sonne other animal, which contained magically potent medicines and powerful fetishes. Arriving at the lodge of Nanabozho, they chanted to him with ceremonial formality their good intentions and kind greetings, and asked him to be pleased to accompany them to their lodge.

     Moved by these greetings, Nanabozho uncovered his head, and, arising, washed himself and then accompanied them. On his entering the lodge the manitos offered him a cup of purification medicine preparatory to his initiation into the Mide, or Grand Medicine Society. Nanabozho partook of the draft, and at once found himself completely freed from feelings of resentment and melancholy. Then the prescribed ritual was performed by the manitos. The proper dances and the chants of the Mide were chanted, and the four manitos, humanized primal beings, gently applied to Nanahozho their pind-ikosn.ii, or magically potent medicine-bags, which, after eerenionially blowing their orenda or magie power into him, they east Out he ground.

     At every fall of the medicine-bags Nanabozh became aware that the melancholy, sadness, hatred, and anger that oppressed him gradually left, and that beneficent affection and feelings of joy arose in his heart. On the completion of his initiation he joined if' the dances and in the chanting; then they all ate and smoked together, and Nanabozho expressed thanks to his hosts for initiating him into the mysteries of the grand medicine.

     To further show their good will, the manitos, by the exercise of their magic powers, brought back the missing Chipiapoos, but, owing to his metamorphosis, lie was forbidden to enter the lodge. Having received a lighted torch through a chink in the walls of the lodge, he was required to go to rule the country of the manes, where, with the lighted torch he carried, lie should kindle a fire that should De-er be extinguished, for the pleasure his uncles and aunts-namely, all men and women-who would repair thither. Subsequently, Nanabozho again descended upon the earth, and at once initiated all his family in the mysteries of the grand medicine.

     He provided each of them with a medicine-bag, well supplied with potent medicines, charms, and fetishes. He also strictly enjoined upon them the need of perpetuating the accompanying ceremonies among their descendants, explaining to them that these practices faithfully observed would cure their diseases, obtain for them abundance in fishing and hunting, and gain for them complete victory over their enemies.

     Some hold to the doctrine that Nanabozho created the animals for the food and raiment of man; that be caused those plants and roots to grow whose virtues cure disease and enable the hunter to kill wild animals in order to drive away famine. These plants he confided to the watchful care of his grandmother, the great-grandmother of the human race, Mesakkummikokwi, and lest man should invoke her in vain she was strictly forbidden ever to leave her lodge. So, when collecting plants, roots, and herbs for their natural and magic virtues, an Algonquian Indian faithfully leaves on the ground hard by the place whence he has taken the root or plant a small offering to Mesakkmnmikokwi.

     It is said that Nanabozho in his many journeys over the earth destroyed many ferocious monsters of land and water whose continued existence would have placed in jeopardy the fate of mankind. It is believed by the faithful that Nanabozho, resting from his toils, dwells on a great island of ice floating on a large sea in the northland, where the seraphim of auroral light keep nightly vigil. It is also believed that should he set foot on the land the world would at once take fire and every living being would share with it a n nini(n destruction. As a perversion of an earlier tradition, it is said that Nanabozho has placed four beneficent humanized beings, one at each of the four cardinal points or world-quarters, to aid in promoting the welfare of the human race-the one at the a. supplies light and starts the sun on his daily journey over the sky; the one at the s. supplies warmth, heat, and the refreshing dews that cause the growth of the soothing tobacco plant, and of corn, beans, squashes, and all the herbs and shrubs that bear fruit; the one at the w. supplies cooling and life-giving showers; lastly, the one at the N. supplies snow and ice, enabling the tracking and successful pursuit of wild animals, and who causes them to hibernate, to seek places of concealment from the cold of winter.

     Under the care of the man-being of the s. Nanabozho placed lesser humanized beings, dominantly bird-like in form, whose voices are the thunder and the flashing of whose eyes is the lightning, and to whom offerings of tobacco are made when their voices are loud and menacing.

     Like the Iroquois and Huron sages, the Algonquian philosophers taught that the disembodied souls of the (lead, on their journey to the great meadow in which is situated the village of their deceased ancestors, must cross a swift stream precariously bridged by a tree trunk, which was in continual motion. Over this the manes of the justified pass in safety, while the shades of the vicious, overcome by the magic power of adverse fate, fail at this ordeal, and, falling into the abyss below, are lost.

     Another and equally credited tradition is to the effect that a man to or primal man-being formed a world which he peopled with man-beings having the form but not the benevolent attributes of man, and that these primal man-beings, doing nothing but evil, finally caused the destruction of the world and themselves by a flood; that having thus satisfied his displeasure the primal man being brought the world again out of the waters and formed anew a fine looking young man, but, being alone, the latter seemed disconsolate and weary of life. Then, pitying him, the primal man-being brought him as lie slept a sister for a companion. Awaking, the young man was rejoiced to see his sister, and the two dwelt together for many years in mutual amusement and agreeable discourse.

     Finally the young man dreamed for the first time, and he related his dream to his sister, saying that, it had been royt-aled to him that, live young ruin-beings would that night visit their lodge, and that she was forbidden to speak to or in ally manner recognize any of the first four would seek admission to the lodge, but that she should welcome the fifth when he would seek admission. This advice she followed. After their metamorphosis these four primal young man-beings became respectively Santa or Tobacco, who, receiving no answer from the sister, died of chagrin; Wapekone or Squash; Eshketanmok or melon, and Kojees or Bean, who shared the fate of the first. But Mlaudaniin or Corn, the fifth, was answered and welcomed by the sister, and he entered the lodge and became her husband. Then Alandamin buried his four comrades, and soon from their graves sprang up respectively tobacco, squashes, nucleus, and beans in such quantity as to supply them for the year, and tobacco enough to enable them to make offerings to the principal man-beings and to smoke in council. From this union sprang the Indian race.

     In one version of the prevailing Algonquian cosumogonic story it is said that before the formation of the earth there was only water; that on the surface of this vast expanse of water floated a large raft on which were the animals of the various kinds which are on the earth and of which the Great flare was the chief. They sought a fit and firm place on which to disembark; but as there were in sight only swans and other waterfowl, they began to lose hope, and, having no other, they requested the beaver to dive for the purpose of bringing up some earth from the bottom of the water, assuring him in the name of all the animals present that, should he return with only a single particle, it would produce an earth sufficiently spacious to contain and nourish all.

     But the beaver sought an excuse for refusal, saying that he had already dived around the raft and had failed to reach the bottom. He was pressed so strongly to make anew so worthy an attempt, however, that he took the hazard and dived. He remained without returning for so long a time that the supplicants believed him drowned. Finally they saw him appear nearly dead and motionless. Then all the animals, seeing that he was in no condition to remount the raft, at once interested themselves to take him into it. After examining carefully his paws and tail, they found nothing. But the little hope left them of being able to save their lives compelled them to address themselves to the otter to ask that he make an attempt to find earth at the bottom of the waters. It was told him that his own safety, as well as theirs, depended en the result of his effort.

     So the otter yielded to their urging and dived. He remained in t he dept his of the waters a longer time then like the beaver, he came to the surface without success. The impossibility of finding a place to dwell where they could subsist left them nothing more to hope, when the muskrat offered to attempt to find the bottom, and he flattered himself that he would bring back ,,and. Although the beaver and the otter, much stronger than he, had not been able to accomplish the task, they encouraged him, promising even that, if he succeeded in his attempt, he should be the ruler of the whole world. The muskrat then cast himself into the waters and bravely dived into the depths. After remaining therein nearly an entire (lay and night lie appeared emotionless at the side of the raft, belly uppermost and paws closed. The other animals carefully took him out of the water, opened one of his paws, then a second, then a third, and finally the fourth, where there was a small grain of sad between his claws.

     The Great Hare, who was encouraged to form a vast and spacious earth, took this grain of sand and let it fall on the raft, which became larger. He took a part and scattered it, which caused the amass to increase more and more. When it was of the size of a mountain he willed it to turn, ail as it turned the mass still increased in size. As soon as it appeared quite large he gave orders to the fox to examine his work with power to enlarge it. He obeyed. The fox, having learned that the earth was of such size that he could easily take his prey, returned to the Great Mare to inform him that the earth was large enough to contain and nourish all the animals.

     After this report the Great Hare went over his work, and, on going around it, found it imperfect. He has since not been disposed to trust any one of all the other animals, and ever keeps on enlarging the earth by ceaselessly going around it. The rumblings heard in the caverns of mountains confirm the Indians in the belief that the Great Hare continues the work of enlarging the earth. He is honored by them, and they regard him as the god who has formed the land.

     Such is what the Algonquians teach regarding the formation of the earth, which they believe is borne on a raft. Concerning the sea and the firmament, they assert that they have existed for all time. After the formation of the earth all the other animals withdrew into the places most fitted to them, where they could feed and find their prey. The first of these having died, the Great Hare caused men to be born from their cadavers, even front those of tho tieh which were found along the banks of rivers which he had made in fo ruling the earth, and gave each a different language or dialect. Because sonne ascribed their origin to the bear, others to the elk, and thus to all the different animals, they believed that they had their being front these creatures.

Handbook of American Indians, Frederick W. Hodge,1906

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The articles/books presented are for their historical value only and are not necessarily the opinions of this website. While these articles/books can provide some insight to ways that have been lost, they are also written within the limitations and restrictions of the time in which they were written. For example Carl Moon (1879-1948) wrote "About the only thing we have thus far overlooked taking from the Indian is his right to perform his religious rites with their accompanying dances in his own way." When in fact that right was also taken from them in 1890 and was only restored with the American Indian Religious Freedom Act in 1978. Carl Moon saw himself as a visual historian belonging to both the scientific and artistic communities. This just shows that he was not aware of the "ban", because in his time information was not shared like it is today. ~ Spotted Wolf   (Read more about Carl Moon...)

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Created December 23, 2006