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Snow Owl – October, 2003


http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/1maps.htm

 

http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/1maps.htm
 

    The Subarctic region (see 'maps') comprises the major part of Canada, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean west to the mountains bordering the Pacific Ocean, and from the tundra south to within about 300 km (about 200 mi) of the United States border.

    The eastern half of this region was once heavily glaciated, and its soil and drainage are poor. No agriculture is possible in the Subarctic because summers are extremely short, and so the region's peoples lived by hunting moose and caribou (a North American reindeer) and by fishing.

    They were nomadic, sheltering themselves in tents or, in the west, sometimes in sunken round houses (as in the Plateau region). To move camp, they used canoes in summer and sleds in winter.

    Because of the limited food resources, Subarctic populations remained small; even the summer rendezvous at good fishing spots drew only hundreds, compared to the thousands of persons who gathered at seasonal rendezvous in the Great Lakes or Plains regions.

    The peoples native to the eastern half of the Subarctic region are speakers of Algonquian languages; they include the Cree, Ojibwa (also known as the Chippewa), Montagnais, and Naskapi. In the western half live speakers of northern Athapaskan languages, including the Chipewyan, Beaver, Kutchin, Ingalik, Kaska, and Tanana .

 

Many Subarctic peoples, although now settled in villages, still live by trapping, fishing, and hunting.

http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/nativeam6.htm

 
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGIONAL GROUPINGS
 

The Inuit vary within about 5 cm (about 2 in) of an average height of 163 cm (5 ft 4 in), and they display metabolic, circulatory, and other adaptations to the Arctic climate.

Inhabiting an area spanning almost 5150 km (almost 3200 mi), Inuit have a wider geographical range than any other aboriginal people and are the most sparsely distributed people on earth. They fall generally into the following geographical divisions, moving from east to west:

 

 
  • (1) Greenland Inuit, living on the eastern and western coasts of southern Greenland , who have adopted many European ways and are known as Greenlanders or Kalaallitt (Kalâtdlit);
  • (2) Labrador Inuit, occupying the coast from a point opposite Newfoundland to Hudson Bay , with a few settlements on southern Baffin Island ;
  • (3) Central Inuit, including those of far northern Greenland and, in Canada , Baffin Island and western Hudson Bay ;
  • (4) Banks Island Inuit, on Banks Island , Victoria Island , and other large islands off the central Arctic coast;
  • (5) Western Arctic Inuit or Inuvialuit, along the western Arctic coast of Canada ;
  • (6) Alaskan Inuit;
  • (7) Alaskan Yuit; and
  • (8) Siberian Yuit.

http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/inuit2.htm

 

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