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& BIOGRAPHY OF A BENDONKOHE APACHE:
One of the most world-wide recognized names out of "America's Past" is Geronimo. Somewhat lesser known is that his "true name" was Goyathlay, or One-Who-Yawns in his people's language. I do not profess to know if this man liked or disliked, appreciated or did not, enjoyed or resented the name "Geronimo" given to him by his enemies. Certainly, in my own mind, I can serve up several arguments for either side. It may well be that somewhere, it can be undeniably shown which way he actually felt; thus far, I have not found it. When and if I do, I will update this article and dedicated page to read which. Until then, I am going to use what I deem is Respect for him, and use his Honorable Native American name:
Also, I am going to do something a bit different
here. There are "Geronimo" sites/pages galore out there in cyberspace, including so many European ones in their respective languages that I can not count. So, I am going to try and put a "Timeline" in keeping with the various dates pertaining to Goyathlay's life. I do this, in hopes, of giving a new and more comprehensive look into just how great this man was….and simply amazing the accomplishments/deeds he performed were…in the face of the world he was "fighting" as compared to the next to nothing save an indomitable spirit, that he had.
Not only this, but also to show to some extent the virtual uncaring attitude to the rapidly disappearing of a "historical way of life" and the complete apathy around the world to the virtual attempt to eradicate an entire species of Man, or at least decimate him to the point where, at the time, it would be thought "they" would never survive; and the methods used to do this.
I have lived with knowledge of Goyathlay basically all my life although not extensively so, but in the doing of this….my eyes opened wider as I began to see the true scope of the inner-man, this Freedom Loving Person had….and shame to the America and its Presidents who spout phrases akin to "Freedom Loving People the world over….", yet deny the Truth when it happens in their "own backyard"; deny the Truth when it gets older; and deny Truth to its Very Face when its every existence is all around them.
If I could have found the written material in this sorry excuse for a Public Library here in my city, I would have….but I can not, so: The quoted words of Goyathlay are taken from "Geronimo: His Own Story", available at and used with permission for non-commercial use: A Hypertext on American History from the colonial period until Modern Times:
1829 – Goyathlay
born Bendonkohe Apache in West of the
Eastern Border of Arizona and South of the headwaters of the Gila
River; No-doyohn Canyon, Arizona.
Apache had, or have, six Tribal sub-divisions:
– Mangas-Colorado was Chief; prior to him
was Goyathlay’s Grandfather Maco who was Chief;
Hot Springs Apache (Chi-hen-ne)
at this time, Victoria was Chief;
– Whoa was Chief, called by Mexicans:
Capitan Whoa; it was this man’s son, Asa, who interpreted
Goyathlay’s “own story”;
Apache (Cho-kon-en) – Cochise was
Chief; and his son Naiche after him;
Mountain Apache –
Hash-ka-ai-la was Chief;
Apache - They had two Chiefs during
this time: Co-si-to and Co-da-hoo-yah. Apparently while these folks were
friendly, they were not “intimate” with Goyathlay’s people.
It was the
first four listed here that were firmly bonded in peace, war and
1829, this was
happening in the world of which he was
surely unaware and most probably could have cared less; although, he may
have been more than a little upset over what Jackson was about to, if
not approve then surely studiously overlook, let happen to the Cherokee
Jackson inaugurated as 7th President of the United States;
is abolished in Mexico;
Guerrero of Mexico is overthrown by General Bustamante;
debuts in Vienna;
Museum is founded by bequest of 100,000 Pounds, by Will. of James
wins the first Oxford-Cambridge boat race;
first U.S. Patent on a typewriter granted.
with the false sensationalization of various small events or even
non-existent events by journalists, authors, and people simply trying to
make themselves seem more than they really were, bringing the populated
Eastern States to cry out for vengeance against imagined warlike
savages, there were “outlawed” Indians whom were banished from, for
instance, the Apache Tribes. It
can also be accepted that there were all along, such from all the other
various Native American Peoples during the course of history and
certainly from the point which the Euro-influx began.
Without a doubt, the actions of these banished persons surely was
used against all Native Americans as a whole; either in stupidity or to
further someone’s financial gain along the line.
Apaches had no prisons as white men have. Instead of sending their
criminals into prison they sent them out of their tribe. These faithless,
cruel, lazy, or cowardly members of the tribe were excluded in such a
manner that they could not join any other tribe. Neither could they have
any protection from our unwritten tribal laws. Frequently these outlaw
Indians banded together and committed depredations which were charged
against the regular tribe. However, the life of an outlaw Indian was a
hard lot, and their bands never became very large; besides, these bands
frequently provoked the wrath of the tribe and secured their own
was about eight or ten years old I began to follow the chase, and to
me this was never work.”
on the prairies, which ran up to our mountain homes, wandered herds of
deer, antelope, elk, and buffalo, to be slaughtered when we needed
my minority we had never seen a missionary or a priest. We had never
seen a white man. Thus quietly lived the Be-don-ko-he Apaches.”
1846, being seventeen years of age, I was admitted to the council of
the warriors…Perhaps the greatest joy to me was that now I could
marry the fair Alope, daughter of No-po-so…..Three children came to
us-- children that played, loitered, and worked as I had done.”
this was happening around the world:
between U.S. and Mexico fail for purchase of New Mexico in April.
American troops move into this area and defeat Mexican forces at Palo
Alto. Formal Declaration of War against Mexico follows and U.S.
annexes New Mexico in August.
becomes a State;
Young begins to lead his people from Illinois to what would become
Salt Lake City, Utah;
Machine is patented by Elias Howe;
used as an anesthetic;
Nearly one hundred years in the future, I would be born; World War II
would be in full-swing and I seriously doubt that Goyathlay would
scarcely recognize the world around him and the sights in the air
wife, child and mother killed by Mexicans
in a totally unwarranted and treacherous
ambush. If any one
incident could be deemed as permanently pivotal in establishing the
road a man walks from that moment on, this would be that moment for
him. It is said by many
historians, authors, biographers and the like that it was this event
that established within Goyathlay the intense hatred of “whites”
and drove him to kill any and all that he came across. I disagree.
Essentially, I disagree with the use of the word “whites” in this
instance. Especially in
view of the fact that when the term “whites” is used, it is
generally understood and accepted as to mean “Americans”.
It is true
that Goyathlay went against Mexico’s inhabitants with a vengeance.
So intensely was his aggression (warranted in my humble
opinion) against them that these Mexican enemies gave him the name
that is most recognized now: Geronimo.
However, in his own words, Goyathlay did not come to attack
“whites” until later and even then at that particular segment of
time, the attacks were selective.
“In the summer of 1858, being at
peace with the Mexican towns as well as with all the neighboring
Indian tribes, we went south into Old Mexico to trade. Our whole tribe
(Bedonkohe Apaches) went through Sonora toward Casa Grande, our
destination, but just before reaching that place we stopped at another
Mexican town called by the Indians Kas-ki-yeh.”………..
“….Mexican troops from some other town had attacked our camp,
killed all the warriors of the guard, captured all our ponies, secured
our arms, destroyed our supplies, and killed many of our women and
“….I found that my aged mother, my young wife, and my three small
children were among the slain.”…….
night I did not give my vote for or against any measure; …… we
could not hope to fight successfully. So our chief, Mangus-Colorado,
gave the order to start at once in perfect silence for our homes in
Arizona, leaving the dead upon the field.”…..
was never again contented in our quiet home. True, I could visit my
father's grave, but I had vowed vengeance upon the Mexican troopers
who had wronged me, and whenever I came near his grave or saw anything
to remind me of former happy days my heart would ache for revenge upon
a few months had passed, Goyathlay and his people found themselves
back in their Arizona area homeland and re-supplied.
It was now that thoughts toward revenge against Mexico were
actively being considered.
Goyathlay was chosen to seek amid the other Apache Peoples, any
that would join them in their cause.
At some point Goyathlay went to the “Chokonen” or Chiricahua
Apaches, of whom Cochise was Chief. This next is what Goyathlay, in
his own words relates that he said before the assembled at dawn one
day; the next is what he said upon an apparent agreement to his
invitation to war on Mexico.
you have heard what the Mexicans have recently done without cause. You
are my relatives--uncles, cousins, brothers. We are men the same as
the Mexicans are--we can do to them what they have done to us. Let us
go forward and trail them--I will lead you to their city--we will
attack them in their homes. I will fight in the front of the battle--I
only ask you to follow me to avenge this wrong done by these
Mexicans--will you come? It is well--you will all come.”
the rule in war--men may return or they may be killed. If any of these
young men are killed I want no blame from their kinsmen, for they
themselves have chosen to go. If I am killed no one need mourn for me.
My people have all been killed in that country, and I, too, will die
if need be.”
Goyathlay then returned to his own
Chief, Mangas-Colorado and having
reported his success, immediately turned to the Southwest and enlisted
successfully the participation of Chief Whoa and the Nedhi Apache.
the time of the massacre of "Kaskiyeh" (1858) we heard that
some white men were measuring land to the south of us. In company with
a number of other warriors I went to visit them. We could not
understand them very well, for we had no interpreter, but we made a
treaty with them by shaking hands and promising to be brothers. Then
we made our camp near their camp, and they came to trade with us. We
gave them buckskin, blankets, and ponies in exchange for shirts and
provisions. We also brought them game, for which they gave us some
money. We did not know the value of this money, but we kept it and
later learned from the Navajo Indians that it was very valuable.
day they measured land with curious instruments and put down marks
which we could not understand. They were good men, and we were sorry
when they had gone on into the west. They were not soldiers. These
were the first white men I ever saw.”
was happening around the world:
Minnesota becomes a State;
Anglo-Chinese War ends;
Theodore Roosevelt the 26th President of the United States is born;
“The Blessed Virgin Mary appears” to Bernadette;
Expolers Richard Burton and John Speke discover Lakes Tanganyika and
National Association of Baseball Players organized in America;
Ottowa becomes capital of Canada.
– the three
ready to pay a visit to Mexico.
we had anticipated, about ten o'clock in the morning the whole Mexican
force came out. There were two companies of cavalry and two of
infantry. I recognized the cavalry as the soldiers who had killed my
people at Kaskiyeh. This I told to the chieftains, and they said that
I might direct the battle."
was no chief and never had been, but because I had been more deeply
wronged than others, this honor was conferred upon me, and I resolved to
prove worthy of the trust. I arranged the Indians in a hollow circle
near the river, and the Mexicans drew their infantry up in two lines,
with the cavalry in reserve. We were in the timber, and they advanced
until within about four hundred yards, when they halted and opened
the last four Indians were alone in the center of the field--myself and
three other warriors. Our arrows were all gone, our spears broken off in
the bodies of dead enemies. We had only our hands and knives with which
to fight, but all who had stood against us were dead. Then two armed
soldiers came upon us from another part of the field. They
shot down two of our men and we, the remaining two, fled toward our own
warriors. My companion was struck down by a saber, but I reached our
warriors, seized a spear, and turned. The one who pursued me missed his
aim and fell by my spear. With his saber I met the trooper who had
killed my companion and we grappled and fell. I killed him with my knife
and quickly rose over his body, brandishing his saber, seeking for other
troopers to kill. There were none. But the Apaches had seen. Over the
bloody field, covered with the bodies of Mexicans, rang the fierce
covered with the blood of my enemies, still holding my conquering
weapon, still hot with the joy of battle, victory, and vengeance,
I was surrounded by the Apache braves and made war chief of all the
Apaches. Then I gave orders for scalping the slain.
could not call back my loved ones, I could not bring back the dead
Apaches, but I could rejoice in this revenge. The Apaches had avenged
the massacre of Kas-ki-yeh.”
In 1859, this was happening around
Oregon becomes a State;
Karl Marx writes “Critique of Political Economy”;
First oil well drilled at Titusville, PA;
Baseball Club of Washington, D.C. organized;
Work on the Suez Canal is begun.
After the decimation and revenge
upon the Mexicans, nearly all of the Apaches involved were satisfied.
Basically, in their minds I suppose it could be said that they felt
Justice had been done. If
Goyathlay had felt the same, who knows how, at the very least his own
history, may have turned out. Instead,
he was not. Even so, at this
time he apparently could only convince two other warriors and their
families to head back into Mexico and exact more revenge.
Now, can I or any man, condemn or judge his decisions in this
matter? I surely can not do either, for how a tragedy of the such
that happened to Goyathlay affects the heart and mind of each person
differently. As differently as fingerprints on a hand.
Personally, again, I do not think it up to any…past, present or future
to judge his decision here – that, being the sole realm of G*d, by
whatever Name one wishes to Know G*d by. The only ones that would
have any right to do so, would be his own People, and as it will be said
by Goyathlay, further down, some did.
Certainly, it is also
true that this decision and subsequent ones accompanied by
actions brought about more and more tragedy to all involved, and this
certainly is something to be saddened by, he alone can not shoulder all
the blame. For if certain
others at the pivotal times had acted in Honor and sustained that Honor,
then much if not all of the tragedy to come in ensuing years may have
been avoided. So, if
Goyathlay is to be held in blame for these future events, then so too
are the others who figured most actively in them or the causing of them.
At any rate, this excursion into Mexico
failed, badly. His two
companions were killed, and while their families were cared for by the
other Apache Peoples, many of those same People blamed Goyathlay for the
wives and children of my two dead companions were cared for by their
people. Some of the Apaches blamed me for the evil result of the
expedition, but I said nothing. Having failed, it was only proper that I
should remain silent. But my feelings toward the Mexicans did not
change--I still hated them and longed for revenge. I never ceased to
plan for their punishment, but it was hard to get the other warriors to
listen to my proposed raids.”
– In the
summer of this year,
after an attempted ambush by Mexican troops going across the border
into Arizona was completely routed, Goyathlay begins again to
“Soon after this (in the
summer of 1860) I was again able to take the war path against the
Mexicans, this time with twenty-five warriors.”
Goyathlay and his warriors headed out after the Mexican
determined to respond to this latest attack. Apparently, while it
ended in victory for the Apaches, it was so costly that it was one of
those cases that war brings where the winner’s losses were so great
that the victory tastes of defeat.
“In this fight we had lost so
heavily that there really was no glory in our victory, and we returned
to Arizona. No one seemed to want to go on the war path again that
1860, this was
happening around the world:
Lincoln elected as 16th President;
Carolina secedes from Union in protest of above;
Walton invents cork linoleum;
recorded baseball game in San Francisco;
of Vladivostok, Russia;
Goyathlay goes back into Mexico, this time with 12 warriors.
While they initially had success
with a Pack Train, the drivers knowing what was in their best
interests, left everything behind and ran for their lives.
However, Goyathlay and his men were not aware of a column of
Mexican troops headed their way, and were ambushed in total surprise.
At first knocked unconscious, the attackers ignored him as dead
and went in pursuit of the fleeing Apaches.
Gaining consciousness, Goyathlay stood up just as a second
column of Mexicans came upon the scene.
Somehow, in the ensuing action, he escapes with a minor wound
and climbs into the mountains, where the troops decided not to follow
him, which was probably a good idea as Goyathlay says:
“The troopers saw me, but did not dismount and try to follow. I
think they were wise not to come on.”
all made it back, once again the raid had proved unsuccessful for they
even lost what they had at first gained from the Pack Train, and once
again, Goyathlay is held to blame:
“From this place we returned home
empty-handed. We had not even a partial victory to report. I again
returned wounded, but I was not yet discouraged. Again I was blamed by
our people, and again I had no reply.”
“After our return many of the warriors
had gone on a hunt and some of them had gone north to trade for
blankets from the Navajo Indians. I remained at home trying to get my
wounds healed. One morning just at daybreak, when the squaws were
lighting the camp fires to prepare breakfast, three companies of
Mexican troops who had surrounded our settlement in the night opened
fire. There was no time for fighting. Men, women and children fled for
their lives. Many women and children and a few warriors were killed,
and four women were captured. My left eye was still swollen shut, but
with the other I saw well enough to hit one of the officers with an
arrow, and then make good my escape among the rocks. The troopers
burned our tepees and took our arms, provisions, ponies, and blankets.
Winter was at hand.”
“It was a long, long time
before we were again able to go on the war path against the
though, the Apache did not “war” against the Mexicans for “a
long, long time”, this did not mean the Mexicans did not continue to
war upon the Apache.
And if, some people of this day and age, wonder at the anger or
animosity that many Native Americans had toward the non-Indians from
time-to-time, then they should begin to strive to see things from the
Native American’s perspective:
women and children were carried away at different times by Mexicans.
Not many of them ever returned, and those who did underwent many
hardships in order to be again united with their people. Those who did
not escape were slaves to the Mexicans, or perhaps even more degraded.
warriors were captured by the Mexicans they were kept in chains. Four
warriors who were captured once at a place north of Casa Grande,
called by the Indians Honas, were kept in chains for a year and
a half, when they were exchanged for Mexicans whom we had captured.
never chained prisoners or kept them in confinement, but they seldom
got away. Mexican men when captured were compelled to cut wood and
herd horses. Mexican women and children were treated as our own
this was happening,
becomes a State;
of Montgomery forms Confederate States of America;
Lincoln inaugurated as 16th President;
Sumter and the beginning of the Civil War, April 12th;
introduces the Passport System;
population is figured at 32 million – more than England or Italy.
1862, Goyathlay and 8 men venture
back into Mexico, this time with complete
success. They sat and
watched for Pack Trains. A
Pack Train of 4 drivers of a long pack train came along and once
again, discretion being the better part of valor, the drivers left all
behind and ran for their lives. This train had all sorts of good things for the Apache
including calico cloth, sugar loaf, saddles, blankets and other items.
On the way home, they spotted a lone white man:
“…while passing through a
canyon in the Santa Catalina range of mountains in Arizona, met a
white man driving a mule pack train. When we first saw him he had
already seen us, and was riding at full tilt up the canyon. We
examined his train and found that his mules were all loaded with
cheese. We put them in with the other train and resumed our journey.
We did not attempt to trail the driver and I am sure he did not try to
This time, the Apaches had
learned their lessons and had scouts out in case the Mexican Army
decided to track them back and attack the Village as they had done
the third day our scouts came into camp and reported Mexican cavalry
dismounted and approaching our settlement. All our warriors were in
camp. Mangus-Colorado took command of one division and I of the other.
We hoped to get possession of their horses, then surround the troops
in the mountains, and destroy the whole company. This we were unable
to do, for they too, had scouts. However, within four hours after we
started we had killed ten troopers with the loss of only one man, and
the Mexican cavalry was in full retreat, followed by thirty armed
Apaches, who gave them no rest until they were far inside the Mexican
country. No more troops came that winter.”
1862, this was happening around the world:
Proclamation”, effective 1863, written;
successfully measures the Speed of Light;
Cricket Team tours Australia for first time;
– Whether Goyathlay had a clue to
this or not, and it is doubtful that
he did, this year would be significant not necessarily by what he did
or did not do, but for the fact this was the year that Arizona became
a U.S. Territory. Now, there is “another Player” eligible to get
into “the game” and even though this new player is more than
busily involved elsewhere with the Civil War, it will not last
Once more, again during
Goyathlay goes back into Mexico, this time with only THREE warriors.
Now I stressed the figure three to make sure it would not go
unnoticed. For while the
actions and intentions of these four people were in deadly
earnest…what four men alone produced in reaction by the Mexicans
borders on the hilarious.
“The next day we stole into the town at noon. We had no guns, but
were armed with spears and bows and arrows. When the war-whoop was
given to open the attack the Mexicans fled in every direction; not one
of them made any attempt to fight us.
shot some arrows at the retreating Mexicans, but killed only one. Soon
all was silent in the town and no Mexicans could be seen.”
was perhaps the most successful raid ever made by us into Mexican
territory. I do not know the value of the booty, but it was very
great, for we had supplies enough to last our whole tribe for a year
the greatest wrong ever done to the Indians was the treatment received
by our tribe from the United States troops about 1863. The chief of
our tribe, Mangus-Colorado, went to make a treaty of peace for our
people with the white settlement at Apache Tejo, New Mexico. It had
been reported to us that the white men in this settlement were more
friendly and more reliable than those in Arizona, that they would live
up to their treaties and would not wrong the Indians.”
told him that if he would come with his tribe and live near them, they
would issue to him, from the Government, blankets, flour, provisions,
beef, and all manner of supplies. Our chief promised to return to
Apache Tejo within two weeks. When he came back to our settlement he
assembled the whole tribe in council. I did not believe that the
people at Apache Tejo would do as they said and therefore I opposed
the plan, but it was decided that with part of the tribe Mangus-Colorado
should return to Apache Tejo and receive an issue of rations and
supplies. If they were as represented, and if these white men would
keep the treaty faithfully, the remainder of the tribe would join him
and we would make our permanent home at Apache Tejo.”
half of our people went to New Mexico, happy that now they had found
white men who would be kind to them, and with whom they could live in
peace and plenty.”
word ever came to us from them. From other sources, however, we heard
that they had been treacherously captured and slain. In this dilemma
we did not know just exactly what to do, but fearing that the troops
who had captured them would attack us, we retreated into the mountains
near Apache Pass.”
we had disbanded our tribe the Bedonkohe Apaches reassembled near
their old camp vainly waiting for the return of Mangus-Colorado and
our kinsmen. No tidings came save that they had all been treacherously
slain. Then a council was held, and as it was believed that Mangus-Colorado
was dead, I was elected Tribal Chief.”
a long time we had no trouble with anyone. It was more than a year
after I had been made Tribal Chief that United States troops surprised
and attacked our camp. They killed seven children, five women, and
four warriors, captured all our supplies, blankets, horses, and
clothing, and destroyed our tepees. We had nothing left; winter was
beginning, and it was the coldest winter I ever knew. After the
soldiers withdrew I took three warriors and trailed them. Their trail
led back toward San Carlos.”
I went to Apache Pass (Fort Bowie) I found General Howard in command,
and made a treaty with him. This treaty lasted until long after
General Howard had left our country. He always kept his word with us
and treated us as brothers. We never had so good a friend among the
United States officers as General Howard. We could have lived forever
at peace with him. If there is any pure, honest white man in the
United States army, that man is General Howard. All the Indians
respect him, and even to this day frequently talk of the happy times
when General Howard was in command of our Post.”
1863, this was happening around the world:
and Idaho become U.S. Territories;
and South still beating the hell out of one another;
Virginia becomes a State;
Address” by Lincoln;
H. Huxley’s “Evidence as to Man’s Place in Nature”;
paper dress patterns;
establishes free city mail delivery;
stolen base in baseball by Eddie Cuthbert of the Philadelphia
1864 – After the last two very
successful raids into Mexico, it is
understandable that this time when Goyathlay wants to return again, he
has 20 warriors eagerly accompanying him.
And again, it was a successful excursion.
It could have easily turned against him this time however, for
the train they raided this time carried Mescal.
soon as we made camp the Indians began to get drunk and fight each
other. I, too, drank enough mescal to feel the effect of it, but I was
not drunk. I ordered the fighting stopped, but the order was
disobeyed. Soon almost a general fight was in progress. I tried to
place a guard out around the camp, but all were drunk and refused to
serve. I expected an attack from Mexican troops at any moment, and
really it was a serious matter to me, for being in command I would be
held responsible for any ill luck attending the expedition. Finally
the camp became comparatively still, for the Indians were too drunk to
walk or even fight. While they were in this stupor I poured out all
the mescal, then I put out all the fires and moved the pack mules to a
considerable distance from the camp.”
It was upon returning, the next day, home that they encountered their
first experience of ever having cattle. Even though on foot, they
managed to drive some of these back to their village.
Notice, the “on foot”. For
the most part, anyone who thinks of Indians on a raid, especially one
that is miles from their own home, as it were, automatically envision
a mounted force. This was
not so, for some time yet, and certainly up to this point the Apache
went wherever he wanted to, on foot.
And this, even when they had access to mules.
Why they did not attempt to ride mules, or for that matter
obtain the practice of using horse from various other Tribes of Native
Americans is beyond me. It
surely could not be because the idea had not occurred to them as
witness the fact of the attacks upon them by mounted Mexican troops,
the pack train drivers, and surely the contact with other mounted
Plains Indians. The fact
remains, Apaches had no use for mules:
“As usual we killed and ate some of the
mules. We had little use for mules, and if we could not trade them for
something of value, we killed them.”
1864, this was happening
around the world:
Ulysses S. Grant becomes Commander-in-Chief of Union Forces;
Sherman’s March Through Georgia;
Lincoln re-elected as President;
of Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek, Colorado;
becomes U.S. Territory;
becomes a State;
Pasteur invents “pasteurization for wine”;
Salmon Cannery in the U.S.;
God We Trust” first appears on U.S. coins;
Stakes established as first Horse Race Track in U.S.;
– Goyathlay and four warriors go
back to Mexico and
again, return home successfully, this time with around 60 head of
cattle. Is he now on
It appears they developed a taste for cattle from the previous
year, and this time that was what they had in mind. Remembering the
difficulty of trying to drive cattle on foot, they were horseback this
time around. While I have
not had extensive experience with cattle, while a youth I did have to
bring a couple of milk cows to and fro…and they can be a real pain
in the butt, on foot!
On another raid
into Mexico this same year, it appears that Goyathlay and his people
have finally come to grips with the value of horses.
He makes this raid a horse gathering one, and is successful.
Well, more or less. On
the way home, they once more are routed by far superior numbers and
while making it home alive and well, they did so without their booty.
“Again I had nothing to
say, but l was anxious for another raid.”
– this was happening around
Abraham Lincoln does not actually
“see” the End of the Civil War, is assassinated in April;
War ends in May;
Amendment abolishes slavery;
Cable is completed;
Lowe invents Ice Machine;
Pullman, first sleeping railroad car designed;
Stockyards at Chicago open;
is founded in Pulaski, Tenn.
1866, Goyathlay and 30 mounted
warriors go into Mexico again.
Apparently they had
little if no trouble in comparison to earlier raids, for he states
that they collected all the horses and mules and cattle they wanted
and made it home with them. During
this excursion he states that around 50 Mexicans were killed.
“Mexicans saw us at many times
and in many places, but they did not attack us at any time, nor did
any troops attempt to follow us. When we arrived at homes we gave
presents to all, and the tribe feasted and danced. During this raid we
had killed about fifty Mexicans.”
this was happening around the world:
Society of Britain formed;
Nobel invents dynamite;
– Apparently these recent
perhaps more importantly the lack of response from the Mexicans or
their troops, entice other Apaches to get in on this “good deal”.
It may also have had something to do with the prestige that
must have been growing for Goyathlay, whether he wanted it or not.
At any rate, this time Chief Mangas-Colorado decides to lead a
party of eight into Mexico and Goyathlay goes as a warrior.
Mangas picked a bad time to reinforce his position as Chief, if
that was in fact what he was doing.
While the war party apparently lost none of their numbers, they
eventually returned home without even the horses they had ridden out
arrived home in five days with no victory to report, no spoils to
divide, and not even the three ponies which we had ridden into Mexico.
This expedition was considered disgraceful.”
Mangas led the party out was as spoken above, or not…surely the
reason that he said he would not led any warriors back for another try
when various warriors were anxious to go, was that he could not afford
to lose any more “stature” if this raid failed as well.
Goyathlay again leads the men out, and this time is successful.
It may or may not have been better had he failed.
For certainly it could not have done Mangas’ mind much good
and in the long run may have added to the detriment of Goyathlay.
we arrived at our camp we sent out scouts to prevent any surprise by
Mexicans, assembled the tribe, feasted, danced, and divided the
spoils. Mangus Colorado would not receive any of this booty, but we
did not care.”
1867, this was happening around the world:
sells Alaska to U.S., $7,200,000;
troops leave Mexico and Emperor Maximillian is executed;
Marx comes out with “Das Kapital” Volume 1;
explores the Congo;
patents reinforced concrete process;
discovered in Wyoming.
– As Goyathlay says, about a year
after the above raid,
Mexicans venture forth to to recover what they had lost and basically
anything else they could get their hands on, I am sure.
Goyathlay and the village’s men had just returned from a
Hunting Trip and were not expecting any type of trouble since there
had been no contact to that time with the Mexicans.
They were caught unawares as far as their horse herds were
concerned; for although they did manage to kill two scouts, the rest
of the Mexican force took off with the horse and mule herd.
However, the Apaches were not about to sit around and bemoan
their bad luck; they went after them.
Goyathlay took 20 men, and now on foot, set
They found their stock at a cattle ranch at Sonora; killing two
men and losing none themselves, they recovered all their stock plus
the ranch’s. They were
trailed by nine cowboys, which keep in mind are still not the
“whites” nor “white cowboys” that many are led to believe that
Goyathlay was so intent against.
Sending most of his group on ahead with the stock, he and three
warriors lagged behind to discourage their followers.
And discourage them, I think they did!
night when near the Arizona line we discovered these cowboys on our
trail and watched them camp for the night and picket their horses.
About midnight we stole into their camp and silently led away all
their horses, leaving the cowboys asleep.”
these nine cowboys did next morning I do not know, and I have never
heard the Mexicans say anything about it; I know they did not follow
us, for we were not molested. When we arrived in camp at home there
was great rejoicing in the tribe. It was considered a good trick to
get the Mexicans' horses and leave them asleep in the mountains."
"It was a long time before
we again went into Mexico or were disturbed by the Mexicans.”
more white men came. These were all warriors. They made their camp on
the Gila River south of Hot Springs. At first they were friendly and
we did not dislike them, but they were not as good as those who came
about a year some trouble arose between them and the Indians, and I
took the war path as a warrior, not as a chief. I had not been
wronged, but some of my people bad (had) been, and I fought with my
tribe; for the soldiers and not the Indians were at fault.”
long after this some of the officers of the United States troops
invited our leaders to hold a conference at Apache Pass (Fort Bowie).
Just before noon the Indians were shown into a tent and told that they
would be given something to eat. When in the tent they were attacked
by soldiers. our chief, Mangus-Colorado, and several other warriors,
by cutting through the tent, escaped; but most of the warriors were
killed or captured. Among the Bedonkohe Apaches killed at this time
were Sanza, Kladetahe, Niyokahe, and Gopi. After this treachery the
Indians went back to the mountains and left the fort entirely alone. I
do not think
that the agent had anything to do with planning this, for he had
always treated us well. I believe it was entirely planned by the
the very first the soldiers sent out to our western country, and the
officers in charge of them, did not hesitate to wrong the Indians.
They never explained to the Government when an Indian was wronged, but
always reported the misdeeds of the Indians. Much that was done by
mean white men was reported at Washington as the deeds of my
this trouble all of the Indians agreed not to be friendly with the
white men any more. There was no general engagement, but a long
struggle followed. Sometimes we attacked the white men, sometimes they
attacked us. First a few Indians would be killed and then a few
soldiers. I think the killing was about equal on each side. The number
killed in these troubles did not amount to much, but this treachery on
the part of the soldiers had angered the Indians and revived memories
of other wrongs, so that we never again trusted the United States
this was happening
Amendment; protecting individual’s rights against State
Profession baseball team – Cincinnati Red Stockings, and introduces
recorded bicycle race;
meat packing opens in Chicago.
Article Continued on Page
ADDITIONAL ARTICLE ABOUT THE APACHE AND GOYATHLAY by Joyce
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