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    One of the most world-wide recognized names out of "America's Past" is Geronimo. Somewhat lesser known is that his "true name" was Goyathlay, or One-Who-Yawns in his people's language. I do not profess to know if this man liked or disliked, appreciated or did not, enjoyed or resented the name "Geronimo" given to him by his enemies. Certainly, in my own mind, I can serve up several arguments for either side. It may well be that somewhere, it can be undeniably shown which way he actually felt; thus far, I have not found it. When and if I do, I will update this article and dedicated page to read which. Until then, I am going to use what I deem is Respect for him, and use his Honorable Native American name: Goyathlay.

    Also, I am going to do something a bit different here. There are "Geronimo" sites/pages galore out there in cyberspace, including so many European ones in their respective languages that I can not count. So, I am going to try and put a "Timeline" in keeping with the various dates pertaining to Goyathlay's life. I do this, in hopes, of giving a new and more comprehensive look into just how great this man was….and simply amazing the accomplishments/deeds he performed were…in the face of the world he was "fighting" as compared to the next to nothing save an indomitable spirit, that he had. 

    Not only this, but also to show to some extent the virtual uncaring attitude to the rapidly disappearing of a "historical way of life" and the complete apathy around the world to the virtual attempt to eradicate an entire species of Man, or at least decimate him to the point where, at the time, it would be thought "they" would never survive; and the methods used to do this.

    I have lived with knowledge of Goyathlay basically all my life although not extensively so, but in the doing of this….my eyes opened wider as I began to see the true scope of the inner-man, this Freedom Loving Person had….and shame to the America and its Presidents who spout phrases akin to "Freedom Loving People the world over….", yet deny the Truth when it happens in their "own backyard"; deny the Truth when it gets older; and deny Truth to its Very Face when its every existence is all around them.

     If I could have found the written material in this sorry excuse for a Public Library here in my city, I would have….but I can not, so: The quoted words of Goyathlay are taken from "Geronimo: His Own Story", available at and used with permission for non-commercial use: A Hypertext on American History from the colonial period until Modern Times:

June, 1829 Goyathlay born Bendonkohe Apache in West of the Eastern Border of Arizona and South of the headwaters of the Gila River; No-doyohn Canyon, Arizona.

 The Apache had, or have, six Tribal sub-divisions:

  Bendonkohe Apache – Mangas-Colorado was Chief; prior to him was Goyathlay’s Grandfather Maco who was Chief;

  Hot Springs Apache (Chi-hen-ne) – at this time, Victoria was Chief;

  Ned-ni Apache – Whoa was Chief, called by Mexicans: Capitan Whoa; it was this man’s son, Asa, who interpreted Goyathlay’s “own story”;

  Chiricahua Apache (Cho-kon-en) – Cochise was Chief; and his son Naiche after him;

  White Mountain Apache – Hash-ka-ai-la was Chief;

  Chi-e-a-hen Apache - They had two Chiefs during this time: Co-si-to and Co-da-hoo-yah. Apparently while these folks were friendly, they were not “intimate” with Goyathlay’s people.

  It was the first four listed here that were firmly bonded in peace, war and illness.

In 1829, this was happening in the world of which he was surely unaware and most probably could have cared less; although, he may have been more than a little upset over what Jackson was about to, if not approve then surely studiously overlook, let happen to the Cherokee Nation:

Andrew Jackson inaugurated as 7th President of the United States;

Russo-Turk War ends;

Slavery is abolished in Mexico;

President Guerrero of Mexico is overthrown by General Bustamante;

Chopin debuts in Vienna;

Smithsonian Museum is founded by bequest of 100,000 Pounds, by Will. of James Smithson, Chemist;

Oxford wins the first Oxford-Cambridge boat race;

The first U.S. Patent on a typewriter granted.

     Along with the false sensationalization of various small events or even non-existent events by journalists, authors, and people simply trying to make themselves seem more than they really were, bringing the populated Eastern States to cry out for vengeance against imagined warlike savages, there were “outlawed” Indians whom were banished from, for instance, the Apache Tribes.  It can also be accepted that there were all along, such from all the other various Native American Peoples during the course of history and certainly from the point which the Euro-influx began.  Without a doubt, the actions of these banished persons surely was used against all Native Americans as a whole; either in stupidity or to further someone’s financial gain along the line.

“The Apaches had no prisons as white men have. Instead of sending their criminals into prison they sent them out of their tribe. These faithless, cruel, lazy, or cowardly members of the tribe were excluded in such a manner that they could not join any other tribe. Neither could they have any protection from our unwritten tribal laws. Frequently these outlaw Indians banded together and committed depredations which were charged against the regular tribe. However, the life of an outlaw Indian was a hard lot, and their bands never became very large; besides, these bands frequently provoked the wrath of the tribe and secured their own destruction.”

1838 approximately:

“I was about eight or ten years old I began to follow the chase, and to me this was never work.”

“Out on the prairies, which ran up to our mountain homes, wandered herds of deer, antelope, elk, and buffalo, to be slaughtered when we needed them.”

  “During my minority we had never seen a missionary or a priest. We had never seen a white man. Thus quietly lived the Be-don-ko-he Apaches.”

  “In 1846, being seventeen years of age, I was admitted to the council of the warriors…Perhaps the greatest joy to me was that now I could marry the fair Alope, daughter of No-po-so…..Three children came to us-- children that played, loitered, and worked as I had done.”

In 1846, this was happening around the world:

Negotiations between U.S. and Mexico fail for purchase of New Mexico in April.  American troops move into this area and defeat Mexican forces at Palo Alto.  Formal Declaration of War against Mexico follows and U.S. annexes New Mexico in August.

Iowa becomes a State;

Brigham Young begins to lead his people from Illinois to what would become Salt Lake City, Utah;

Sewing Machine is patented by Elias Howe;

Protoplasm is identified;

Ether used as an anesthetic;

    Nearly one hundred years in the future, I would be born; World War II would be in full-swing and I seriously doubt that Goyathlay would scarcely recognize the world around him and the sights in the air above him.

1857- Goyathlay’s wife, child and mother killed by Mexicans in a totally unwarranted and treacherous ambush.  If any one incident could be deemed as permanently pivotal in establishing the road a man walks from that moment on, this would be that moment for him.  It is said by many historians, authors, biographers and the like that it was this event that established within Goyathlay the intense hatred of “whites” and drove him to kill any and all that he came across. I disagree. Essentially, I disagree with the use of the word “whites” in this instance.  Especially in view of the fact that when the term “whites” is used, it is generally understood and accepted as to mean “Americans”.

      It is true that Goyathlay went against Mexico’s inhabitants with a vengeance.  So intensely was his aggression (warranted in my humble opinion) against them that these Mexican enemies gave him the name that is most recognized now: Geronimo.  However, in his own words, Goyathlay did not come to attack “whites” until later and even then at that particular segment of time, the attacks were selective.

  “In the summer of 1858, being at peace with the Mexican towns as well as with all the neighboring Indian tribes, we went south into Old Mexico to trade. Our whole tribe (Bedonkohe Apaches) went through Sonora toward Casa Grande, our destination, but just before reaching that place we stopped at another Mexican town called by the Indians Kas-ki-yeh.”………..

  “….Mexican troops from some other town had attacked our camp, killed all the warriors of the guard, captured all our ponies, secured our arms, destroyed our supplies, and killed many of our women and children.”…….

   “….I found that my aged mother, my young wife, and my three small children were among the slain.”…….

  “That night I did not give my vote for or against any measure; …… we could not hope to fight successfully. So our chief, Mangus-Colorado, gave the order to start at once in perfect silence for our homes in Arizona, leaving the dead upon the field.”…..

“I was never again contented in our quiet home. True, I could visit my father's grave, but I had vowed vengeance upon the Mexican troopers who had wronged me, and whenever I came near his grave or saw anything to remind me of former happy days my heart would ache for revenge upon Mexico.”

      After a few months had passed, Goyathlay and his people found themselves back in their Arizona area homeland and re-supplied.  It was now that thoughts toward revenge against Mexico were actively being considered.  Goyathlay was chosen to seek amid the other Apache Peoples, any that would join them in their cause.

     At some point Goyathlay went to the “Chokonen” or Chiricahua Apaches, of whom Cochise was Chief. This next is what Goyathlay, in his own words relates that he said before the assembled at dawn one day; the next is what he said upon an apparent agreement to his invitation to war on Mexico.

“Kinsman, you have heard what the Mexicans have recently done without cause. You are my relatives--uncles, cousins, brothers. We are men the same as the Mexicans are--we can do to them what they have done to us. Let us go forward and trail them--I will lead you to their city--we will attack them in their homes. I will fight in the front of the battle--I only ask you to follow me to avenge this wrong done by these Mexicans--will you come? It is well--you will all come.”

“Remember the rule in war--men may return or they may be killed. If any of these young men are killed I want no blame from their kinsmen, for they themselves have chosen to go. If I am killed no one need mourn for me. My people have all been killed in that country, and I, too, will die if need be.”

    Goyathlay then returned to his own Chief, Mangas-Colorado and having reported his success, immediately turned to the Southwest and enlisted successfully the participation of Chief Whoa and the Nedhi Apache.

“About the time of the massacre of "Kaskiyeh" (1858) we heard that some white men were measuring land to the south of us. In company with a number of other warriors I went to visit them. We could not understand them very well, for we had no interpreter, but we made a treaty with them by shaking hands and promising to be brothers. Then we made our camp near their camp, and they came to trade with us. We gave them buckskin, blankets, and ponies in exchange for shirts and provisions. We also brought them game, for which they gave us some money. We did not know the value of this money, but we kept it and later learned from the Navajo Indians that it was very valuable.

Every day they measured land with curious instruments and put down marks which we could not understand. They were good men, and we were sorry when they had gone on into the west. They were not soldiers. These were the first white men I ever saw.”

In 1858, this was happening around the world:

Minnesota becomes a State;

Anglo-Chinese War ends;

Theodore Roosevelt the 26th President of the United States is born;

“The Blessed Virgin Mary appears” to Bernadette;

Expolers Richard Burton and John Speke discover Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria;

National Association of Baseball Players organized in America;

Ottowa becomes capital of Canada.

1859 the three tribes are ready to pay a visit to Mexico. 

  “As we had anticipated, about ten o'clock in the morning the whole Mexican force came out. There were two companies of cavalry and two of infantry. I recognized the cavalry as the soldiers who had killed my people at Kaskiyeh. This I told to the chieftains, and they said that I might direct the battle."

"I was no chief and never had been, but because I had been more deeply wronged than others, this honor was conferred upon me, and I resolved to prove worthy of the trust. I arranged the Indians in a hollow circle near the river, and the Mexicans drew their infantry up in two lines, with the cavalry in reserve. We were in the timber, and they advanced until within about four hundred yards, when they halted and opened fire.”


“At the last four Indians were alone in the center of the field--myself and three other warriors. Our arrows were all gone, our spears broken off in the bodies of dead enemies. We had only our hands and knives with which to fight, but all who had stood against us were dead. Then two armed soldiers came upon us from another part of the field. They shot down two of our men and we, the remaining two, fled toward our own warriors. My companion was struck down by a saber, but I reached our warriors, seized a spear, and turned. The one who pursued me missed his aim and fell by my spear. With his saber I met the trooper who had killed my companion and we grappled and fell. I killed him with my knife and quickly rose over his body, brandishing his saber, seeking for other troopers to kill. There were none. But the Apaches had seen. Over the bloody field, covered with the bodies of Mexicans, rang the fierce Apache war-whoop.

Still covered with the blood of my enemies, still holding my conquering weapon, still hot with the joy of battle, victory, and vengeance, I was surrounded by the Apache braves and made war chief of all the Apaches. Then I gave orders for scalping the slain.

I could not call back my loved ones, I could not bring back the dead Apaches, but I could rejoice in this revenge. The Apaches had avenged the massacre of Kas-ki-yeh.”


In 1859, this was happening around the world:

  Oregon becomes a State;

Karl Marx writes “Critique of Political Economy”;

First oil well drilled at Titusville, PA;

Baseball Club of Washington, D.C. organized;

Work on the Suez Canal is begun.


    After the decimation and revenge upon the Mexicans, nearly all of the Apaches involved were satisfied.  Basically, in their minds I suppose it could be said that they felt Justice had been done.  If Goyathlay had felt the same, who knows how, at the very least his own history, may have turned out.  Instead, he was not.  Even so, at this time he apparently could only convince two other warriors and their families to head back into Mexico and exact more revenge.

    Now, can I or any man, condemn or judge his decisions in this matter?  I surely can not do either, for how a tragedy of the such that happened to Goyathlay affects the heart and mind of each person differently.  As differently as fingerprints on a hand.  Personally, again, I do not think it up to any…past, present or future to judge his decision here – that, being the sole realm of G*d, by whatever Name one wishes to Know G*d by.  The only ones that would have any right to do so, would be his own People, and as it will be said by Goyathlay, further down, some did.

    Certainly, it is also  true that this decision and subsequent ones accompanied by actions brought about more and more tragedy to all involved, and this certainly is something to be saddened by, he alone can not shoulder all the blame.  For if certain others at the pivotal times had acted in Honor and sustained that Honor, then much if not all of the tragedy to come in ensuing years may have been avoided.  So, if Goyathlay is to be held in blame for these future events, then so too are the others who figured most actively in them or the causing of them.

    At any rate, this excursion into Mexico failed, badly.  His two companions were killed, and while their families were cared for by the other Apache Peoples, many of those same People blamed Goyathlay for the disaster.

  “The wives and children of my two dead companions were cared for by their people. Some of the Apaches blamed me for the evil result of the expedition, but I said nothing. Having failed, it was only proper that I should remain silent. But my feelings toward the Mexicans did not change--I still hated them and longed for revenge. I never ceased to plan for their punishment, but it was hard to get the other warriors to listen to my proposed raids.”

1860 In the summer of this year, after an attempted ambush by Mexican troops going across the border into Arizona was completely routed, Goyathlay begins again to mobilize.

  “Soon after this (in the summer of 1860) I was again able to take the war path against the Mexicans, this time with twenty-five warriors.”

    Goyathlay and his warriors headed out after the Mexican troops, determined to respond to this latest attack. Apparently, while it ended in victory for the Apaches, it was so costly that it was one of those cases that war brings where the winner’s losses were so great that the victory tastes of defeat.

  “In this fight we had lost so heavily that there really was no glory in our victory, and we returned to Arizona. No one seemed to want to go on the war path again that year.”

In 1860, this was happening around the world:

Abraham Lincoln elected as 16th President;

South Carolina secedes from Union in protest of above;

Fredrick Walton invents cork linoleum;

First recorded baseball game in San Francisco;

Founding of Vladivostok, Russia;

1861, Goyathlay goes back into Mexico, this time with 12 warriors.

    While they initially had success with a Pack Train, the drivers knowing what was in their best interests, left everything behind and ran for their lives.  However, Goyathlay and his men were not aware of a column of Mexican troops headed their way, and were ambushed in total surprise.  At first knocked unconscious, the attackers ignored him as dead and went in pursuit of the fleeing Apaches.  Gaining consciousness, Goyathlay stood up just as a second column of Mexicans came upon the scene.  Somehow, in the ensuing action, he escapes with a minor wound and climbs into the mountains, where the troops decided not to follow him, which was probably a good idea as Goyathlay says:

  “The troopers saw me, but did not dismount and try to follow. I think they were wise not to come on.”

     Although they all made it back, once again the raid had proved unsuccessful for they even lost what they had at first gained from the Pack Train, and once again, Goyathlay is held to blame:

  “From this place we returned home empty-handed. We had not even a partial victory to report. I again returned wounded, but I was not yet discouraged. Again I was blamed by our people, and again I had no reply.”


  “After our return many of the warriors had gone on a hunt and some of them had gone north to trade for blankets from the Navajo Indians. I remained at home trying to get my wounds healed. One morning just at daybreak, when the squaws were lighting the camp fires to prepare breakfast, three companies of Mexican troops who had surrounded our settlement in the night opened fire. There was no time for fighting. Men, women and children fled for their lives. Many women and children and a few warriors were killed, and four women were captured. My left eye was still swollen shut, but with the other I saw well enough to hit one of the officers with an arrow, and then make good my escape among the rocks. The troopers burned our tepees and took our arms, provisions, ponies, and blankets. Winter was at hand.”


  “It was a long, long time before we were again able to go on the war path against the Mexicans.”


     Even though, the Apache did not “war” against the Mexicans for “a long, long time”, this did not mean the Mexicans did not continue to war upon the Apache.  And if, some people of this day and age, wonder at the anger or animosity that many Native Americans had toward the non-Indians from time-to-time, then they should begin to strive to see things from the Native American’s perspective:

“Many women and children were carried away at different times by Mexicans. Not many of them ever returned, and those who did underwent many hardships in order to be again united with their people. Those who did not escape were slaves to the Mexicans, or perhaps even more degraded.

When warriors were captured by the Mexicans they were kept in chains. Four warriors who were captured once at a place north of Casa Grande, called by the Indians Honas, were kept in chains for a year and a half, when they were exchanged for Mexicans whom we had captured.

We never chained prisoners or kept them in confinement, but they seldom got away. Mexican men when captured were compelled to cut wood and herd horses. Mexican women and children were treated as our own people.”

In 1861, this was happening, around the world:

Kansas becomes a State;

Congress of Montgomery forms Confederate States of America;

Abraham Lincoln inaugurated as 16th President;

Fort Sumter and the beginning of the Civil War, April 12th;

U.S. introduces the Passport System;

U.S. population is figured at 32 million – more than England or Italy.

In 1862, Goyathlay and 8 men venture back into Mexico, this time with complete success.  They sat and watched for Pack Trains.  A Pack Train of 4 drivers of a long pack train came along and once again, discretion being the better part of valor, the drivers left all behind and ran for their lives.  This train had all sorts of good things for the Apache including calico cloth, sugar loaf, saddles, blankets and other items.  On the way home, they spotted a lone white man:

  “…while passing through a canyon in the Santa Catalina range of mountains in Arizona, met a white man driving a mule pack train. When we first saw him he had already seen us, and was riding at full tilt up the canyon. We examined his train and found that his mules were all loaded with cheese. We put them in with the other train and resumed our journey. We did not attempt to trail the driver and I am sure he did not try to follow us.”

    This time, the Apaches had learned their lessons and had scouts out in case the Mexican Army decided to track them back and attack the Village as they had done previously.

  “On the third day our scouts came into camp and reported Mexican cavalry dismounted and approaching our settlement. All our warriors were in camp. Mangus-Colorado took command of one division and I of the other. We hoped to get possession of their horses, then surround the troops in the mountains, and destroy the whole company. This we were unable to do, for they too, had scouts. However, within four hours after we started we had killed ten troopers with the loss of only one man, and the Mexican cavalry was in full retreat, followed by thirty armed Apaches, who gave them no rest until they were far inside the Mexican country. No more troops came that winter.”

In 1862, this was happening around the world:

“Emancipation Proclamation”, effective 1863, written;

Foucalt successfully measures the Speed of Light;

Gatling Gun created;

England’s Cricket Team tours Australia for first time;

1863 – Whether Goyathlay had a clue to this or not, and it is doubtful that he did, this year would be significant not necessarily by what he did or did not do, but for the fact this was the year that Arizona became a U.S. Territory. Now, there is “another Player” eligible to get into “the game” and even though this new player is more than busily involved elsewhere with the Civil War, it will not last forever.

    Once more, again during Summer, Goyathlay goes back into Mexico, this time with only THREE warriors.  Now I stressed the figure three to make sure it would not go unnoticed.  For while the actions and intentions of these four people were in deadly earnest…what four men alone produced in reaction by the Mexicans borders on the hilarious.

  “The next day we stole into the town at noon. We had no guns, but were armed with spears and bows and arrows. When the war-whoop was given to open the attack the Mexicans fled in every direction; not one of them made any attempt to fight us.

  We shot some arrows at the retreating Mexicans, but killed only one. Soon all was silent in the town and no Mexicans could be seen.”


“This was perhaps the most successful raid ever made by us into Mexican territory. I do not know the value of the booty, but it was very great, for we had supplies enough to last our whole tribe for a year or more.”


“Perhaps the greatest wrong ever done to the Indians was the treatment received by our tribe from the United States troops about 1863. The chief of our tribe, Mangus-Colorado, went to make a treaty of peace for our people with the white settlement at Apache Tejo, New Mexico. It had been reported to us that the white men in this settlement were more friendly and more reliable than those in Arizona, that they would live up to their treaties and would not wrong the Indians.”


“They told him that if he would come with his tribe and live near them, they would issue to him, from the Government, blankets, flour, provisions, beef, and all manner of supplies. Our chief promised to return to Apache Tejo within two weeks. When he came back to our settlement he assembled the whole tribe in council. I did not believe that the people at Apache Tejo would do as they said and therefore I opposed the plan, but it was decided that with part of the tribe Mangus-Colorado should return to Apache Tejo and receive an issue of rations and supplies. If they were as represented, and if these white men would keep the treaty faithfully, the remainder of the tribe would join him and we would make our permanent home at Apache Tejo.”


“……about half of our people went to New Mexico, happy that now they had found white men who would be kind to them, and with whom they could live in peace and plenty.”


“No word ever came to us from them. From other sources, however, we heard that they had been treacherously captured and slain. In this dilemma we did not know just exactly what to do, but fearing that the troops who had captured them would attack us, we retreated into the mountains near Apache Pass.”


“After we had disbanded our tribe the Bedonkohe Apaches reassembled near their old camp vainly waiting for the return of Mangus-Colorado and our kinsmen. No tidings came save that they had all been treacherously slain. Then a council was held, and as it was believed that Mangus-Colorado was dead, I was elected Tribal Chief.”

“For a long time we had no trouble with anyone. It was more than a year after I had been made Tribal Chief that United States troops surprised and attacked our camp. They killed seven children, five women, and four warriors, captured all our supplies, blankets, horses, and clothing, and destroyed our tepees. We had nothing left; winter was beginning, and it was the coldest winter I ever knew. After the soldiers withdrew I took three warriors and trailed them. Their trail led back toward San Carlos.”


“When I went to Apache Pass (Fort Bowie) I found General Howard in command, and made a treaty with him. This treaty lasted until long after General Howard had left our country. He always kept his word with us and treated us as brothers. We never had so good a friend among the United States officers as General Howard. We could have lived forever at peace with him. If there is any pure, honest white man in the United States army, that man is General Howard. All the Indians respect him, and even to this day frequently talk of the happy times when General Howard was in command of our Post.” 

In 1863, this was happening around the world:

Arizona and Idaho become U.S. Territories;

North and South still beating the hell out of one another;

West Virginia becomes a State;

“Gettysburg Address” by Lincoln;

T. H. Huxley’s “Evidence as to Man’s Place in Nature”;

First paper dress patterns;

Football Association formed;

Congress establishes free city mail delivery;

First stolen base in baseball by Eddie Cuthbert of the Philadelphia Keystones;

In 1864 – After the last two very successful raids into Mexico, it is understandable that this time when Goyathlay wants to return again, he has 20 warriors eagerly accompanying him.  And again, it was a successful excursion.  It could have easily turned against him this time however, for the train they raided this time carried Mescal. 

“As soon as we made camp the Indians began to get drunk and fight each other. I, too, drank enough mescal to feel the effect of it, but I was not drunk. I ordered the fighting stopped, but the order was disobeyed. Soon almost a general fight was in progress. I tried to place a guard out around the camp, but all were drunk and refused to serve. I expected an attack from Mexican troops at any moment, and really it was a serious matter to me, for being in command I would be held responsible for any ill luck attending the expedition. Finally the camp became comparatively still, for the Indians were too drunk to walk or even fight. While they were in this stupor I poured out all the mescal, then I put out all the fires and moved the pack mules to a considerable distance from the camp.”

    It was upon returning, the next day, home that they encountered their first experience of ever having cattle. Even though on foot, they managed to drive some of these back to their village.

    Notice, the “on foot”.  For the most part, anyone who thinks of Indians on a raid, especially one that is miles from their own home, as it were, automatically envision a mounted force.  This was not so, for some time yet, and certainly up to this point the Apache went wherever he wanted to, on foot.  And this, even when they had access to mules.  Why they did not attempt to ride mules, or for that matter obtain the practice of using horse from various other Tribes of Native Americans is beyond me.  It surely could not be because the idea had not occurred to them as witness the fact of the attacks upon them by mounted Mexican troops, the pack train drivers, and surely the contact with other mounted Plains Indians.  The fact remains, Apaches had no use for mules:

  “As usual we killed and ate some of the mules. We had little use for mules, and if we could not trade them for something of value, we killed them.”

In 1864, this was happening around the world:

General Ulysses S. Grant becomes Commander-in-Chief of Union Forces;

General Sherman’s March Through Georgia;

Abraham Lincoln re-elected as President;

Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek, Colorado;

Montana becomes U.S. Territory;

Nevada becomes a State;

Louis Pasteur invents “pasteurization for wine”;

First Salmon Cannery in the U.S.;

“In God We Trust” first appears on U.S. coins;

Travers Stakes established as first Horse Race Track in U.S.;

1865 – Goyathlay and four warriors go back to Mexico and again, return home successfully, this time with around 60 head of cattle.  Is he now on horseback?  Yes.  It appears they developed a taste for cattle from the previous year, and this time that was what they had in mind. Remembering the difficulty of trying to drive cattle on foot, they were horseback this time around.  While I have not had extensive experience with cattle, while a youth I did have to bring a couple of milk cows to and fro…and they can be a real pain in the butt, on foot!

     On another raid into Mexico this same year, it appears that Goyathlay and his people have finally come to grips with the value of horses.  He makes this raid a horse gathering one, and is successful.  Well, more or less.  On the way home, they once more are routed by far superior numbers and while making it home alive and well, they did so without their booty.

  “Again I had nothing to say, but l was anxious for another raid.”

In 1865 – this was happening around the world:

Abraham Lincoln does not actually “see” the End of the Civil War, is assassinated in April;

Civil War ends in May;

13th Amendment abolishes slavery;

Atlantic Cable is completed;

Thaddeus Lowe invents Ice Machine;

MIT is founded;

The Pullman, first sleeping railroad car designed;

Union Stockyards at Chicago open;

KKK is founded in Pulaski, Tenn.

In 1866, Goyathlay and 30 mounted warriors go into Mexico again.  Apparently they had little if no trouble in comparison to earlier raids, for he states that they collected all the horses and mules and cattle they wanted and made it home with them.  During this excursion he states that around 50 Mexicans were killed.

  “Mexicans saw us at many times and in many places, but they did not attack us at any time, nor did any troops attempt to follow us. When we arrived at homes we gave presents to all, and the tribe feasted and danced. During this raid we had killed about fifty Mexicans.”

In 1866, this was happening around the world:

Aeronautical Society of Britain formed;

Alfred Nobel invents dynamite;

Underwater torpedo invented;

1867 – Apparently these recent successes and perhaps more importantly the lack of response from the Mexicans or their troops, entice other Apaches to get in on this “good deal”.  It may also have had something to do with the prestige that must have been growing for Goyathlay, whether he wanted it or not.  At any rate, this time Chief Mangas-Colorado decides to lead a party of eight into Mexico and Goyathlay goes as a warrior.  Mangas picked a bad time to reinforce his position as Chief, if that was in fact what he was doing.  While the war party apparently lost none of their numbers, they eventually returned home without even the horses they had ridden out on.

“We arrived home in five days with no victory to report, no spoils to divide, and not even the three ponies which we had ridden into Mexico. This expedition was considered disgraceful.”

     If  the reason Mangas led the party out was as spoken above, or not…surely the reason that he said he would not led any warriors back for another try when various warriors were anxious to go, was that he could not afford to lose any more “stature” if this raid failed as well.  Goyathlay again leads the men out, and this time is successful.  It may or may not have been better had he failed.  For certainly it could not have done Mangas’ mind much good and in the long run may have added to the detriment of Goyathlay.

“When we arrived at our camp we sent out scouts to prevent any surprise by Mexicans, assembled the tribe, feasted, danced, and divided the spoils. Mangus Colorado would not receive any of this booty, but we did not care.”

In 1867, this was happening around the world:

Russia sells Alaska to U.S., $7,200,000;

French troops leave Mexico and Emperor Maximillian is executed;

Karl Marx comes out with “Das Kapital” Volume 1;

Livingstone explores the Congo;

Monier patents reinforced concrete process;

Gold discovered in Wyoming.

1868 – As Goyathlay says, about a year after the above raid, Mexicans venture forth to to recover what they had lost and basically anything else they could get their hands on, I am sure.  Goyathlay and the village’s men had just returned from a Hunting Trip and were not expecting any type of trouble since there had been no contact to that time with the Mexicans.  They were caught unawares as far as their horse herds were concerned; for although they did manage to kill two scouts, the rest of the Mexican force took off with the horse and mule herd.  However, the Apaches were not about to sit around and bemoan their bad luck; they went after them.

    Goyathlay took 20 men, and now on foot, set out.  They found their stock at a cattle ranch at Sonora; killing two men and losing none themselves, they recovered all their stock plus the ranch’s.  They were trailed by nine cowboys, which keep in mind are still not the “whites” nor “white cowboys” that many are led to believe that Goyathlay was so intent against.  Sending most of his group on ahead with the stock, he and three warriors lagged behind to discourage their followers.  And discourage them, I think they did!

  “One night when near the Arizona line we discovered these cowboys on our trail and watched them camp for the night and picket their horses. About midnight we stole into their camp and silently led away all their horses, leaving the cowboys asleep.”



“What these nine cowboys did next morning I do not know, and I have never heard the Mexicans say anything about it; I know they did not follow us, for we were not molested. When we arrived in camp at home there was great rejoicing in the tribe. It was considered a good trick to get the Mexicans' horses and leave them asleep in the mountains."

"It was a long time before we again went into Mexico or were disturbed by the Mexicans.”


“….some more white men came. These were all warriors. They made their camp on the Gila River south of Hot Springs. At first they were friendly and we did not dislike them, but they were not as good as those who came first.

After about a year some trouble arose between them and the Indians, and I took the war path as a warrior, not as a chief. I had not been wronged, but some of my people bad (had) been, and I fought with my tribe; for the soldiers and not the Indians were at fault.”

“Not long after this some of the officers of the United States troops invited our leaders to hold a conference at Apache Pass (Fort Bowie). Just before noon the Indians were shown into a tent and told that they would be given something to eat. When in the tent they were attacked by soldiers. our chief, Mangus-Colorado, and several other warriors, by cutting through the tent, escaped; but most of the warriors were killed or captured. Among the Bedonkohe Apaches killed at this time were Sanza, Kladetahe, Niyokahe, and Gopi. After this treachery the Indians went back to the mountains and left the fort entirely alone. I do not think that the agent had anything to do with planning this, for he had always treated us well. I believe it was entirely planned by the soldiers.”

“From the very first the soldiers sent out to our western country, and the officers in charge of them, did not hesitate to wrong the Indians. They never explained to the Government when an Indian was wronged, but always reported the misdeeds of the Indians. Much that was done by mean white men was reported at Washington as the deeds of my people.”


“After this trouble all of the Indians agreed not to be friendly with the white men any more. There was no general engagement, but a long struggle followed. Sometimes we attacked the white men, sometimes they attacked us. First a few Indians would be killed and then a few soldiers. I think the killing was about equal on each side. The number killed in these troubles did not amount to much, but this treachery on the part of the soldiers had angered the Indians and revived memories of other wrongs, so that we never again trusted the United States troops.”

In 1868, this was happening around the world;

Grant elected President;

14th Amendment; protecting individual’s rights against State infringement;

Badminton game devised;

1st Profession baseball team – Cincinnati Red Stockings, and introduces baseball uniforms;

Earliest recorded bicycle race;

Armour meat packing opens in Chicago.

Article Continued on Page 2


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